The history of the Earth is written in the rocks. It is the geologist’s job to read and interpret that history. In today’s post I provide you with the opportunity to try your hand at it.

Below is a photo of a slab of rock which shows several events. Your challenge is to put those events in chronological order. Even without geological knowledge, careful observation and logic should allow you to deduce the sequence of four of the events recorded in the rock. I’ll give you a hint to start off: there are two kinds of igneous rock in the slab and the white and grey lines are quartz veins. You may click on the photo to display it in more detail than can be displayed on this web page. After you try your powers of deduction, scroll down the page. I reproduced the slab with the major events numbered in order. Below that, I give my interpretation of what this rock tells us.


Here is my interpretation of what this rock tells us:

readrock annotated

The major clues are these: a chunk of the dark rock is completely enclosed by the lighter rock, therefore the darker rock is older than the lighter rock. Some quartz veins cut only the dark rock, others cut both. These are the observations you can make by logic alone.

Here is the sequence as I see it:

The dark rock (1) is a volcanic rock, an andesite, and it was in place before being intruded by the lighter-colored rock, a rhyolite porphyry (2). I say this because chunks of the dark rock are enclosed in the lighter rock.

The magma that would form the light rock (2) may have been emplaced below the andesite (1) and it began to cool and crystallize. Phenocrysts (crystals) of feldspar (white) and biotite (black mica) began to form.. The grey groundmass in which the phenocrysts occur was yet to be crystallized; it is called cryptocrystalline. (By the way, rhyolite and granite are compositionally the same; they differ only in texture and cooling history.) As the magma cooled it produced quartz veins which cut the dark andesite (3).

There was a resurgence of magma pressure which caused the rhyolite (2) to intrude the andesite (1). This caused chunks of the andesite to break off and become enclosed by the rhyolite(4). You can see a chilled border (5) in the rhyolite adjacent to the black fragments, providing more evidence that the andesite preceded the rhyolite. A chilled border is characterized by smaller phenocrysts. After this intrusion, the rhyolite cooled rapidly and stopped the crystallization process. The cryptocrystalline groundmass never finished forming crystals. Remaining volatiles in the magma formed a second generation of quartz veins (6) which cut the andesite, the rhyolite, and the earlier quartz veins. The dark spots in the second-generation quartz vein are pyrite and chalcopyrite, sulfides of iron and copper, which typically form as the last gasp of cooling.

That’s my interpretation. It is what the geologist could deduce in the field. Chemical analysis and examination with a microscope would probably add more details to the story.



  1. Nobody commented on this article as yet. Thanks for posting this item. Thanks for enlightening the public about the rocks under us. Keep the articles coming.

  2. Very Impressive, I enjoyed this article very much. My analysis was not as good as yours but I did enjoy the article. I can’t go anywhere without picking up some rocks and pondering. “been cleanup” i.t.c.

  3. Amazing.  How did all that happen in just 6,000 years?  Guess I’ll have to ask my friend Sylvia from Snowflake.

  4. Leftfield:

    Good comment! I may not have agreed with you on another post but this comment is priceless! ( some conservatives are free thinkers, amazing but true).

  5. Hey Thomas: I don’t know where Lefty came up with that 6,000 years bit, but the Grand Canyon tells me that the earth is at least a few more years older than that.
    Plus I’ve got some chunks of petrified wood door-stops around the house and fish fossils that might pre-date the wood. Hundreds of thousands of years old, of not millions?
    Snowflake Sylvia might want to read something by Stephen Hawking.
    Yer pal, Ferrari Bubba

  6. I think he was joking. Bishop Usher and the world being created 6,000 yrs ago. Ever see Inherit the Wind?? Where have you been.

Comments are closed.