The Arizona Geological Survey has just published a well-written history of the Morenci, Arizona, mining district. The report was written by geologist David F. Briggs and was published as AGS Contributed report Cr-16-C. The 79-page report is available for free download:
The Copper Mountain (Morenci) mining district is located approximately 115 miles northeast of Tucson, Arizona.
Mining began in 1873. This district has produced more than 36 billion pounds of copper from 1873 to 2015. Since 1985 is has been America’s largest domestic copper producer.
The discovery of copper at Morenci during the turbulent years of the American Civil War brought new opportunities for many, but foreshadowed the end of a way of life for Native Americans, who had lived in the region for millennia. A diverse cast of characters has played a role in Morenci’s history, including veterans who ventured west after the war, as well as immigrants eager to make a new life in America.
Briggs provides an interesting narrative of the development of the district as different companies gradually consolidated the mines. Briggs breaks the history into five phases of development as the owner(s) dealt with different types of ore, changing technology, new discoveries, and the sometimes volatile copper market.
Phelps Dodge Corporation operated the district beginning in 1917. Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold, Inc. (renamed Freeport-McMoRan, Inc. in July 2014) acquired an 85% interest in the Morenci project through its merger with the Phelps Dodge Corporation in March 2007, and has been operating the mine since then.
The report contains many maps and both current and historical photographs. This report is an interesting read and its story is one that was similar to that of many mines in the West.
More reports from AZGS: