2022-04 APRIL

People for the West -Tucson

Newsletter, April, 2022

PO Box 86868, Tucson, AZ 85754-6868


Real environmentalism can go hand in hand with natural resource production, private property rights, and access to public lands


Growing old in a country you no longer recognize.

by Don Feder, Frontpage magazine

Those of us who were part of the Baby Boom generation, now in our 60s and 70s, no longer recognize the nation in which we grew up. We are strangers in a land that gets stranger by the day.

We believed in the American dream. We worked hard, paid our taxes and obeyed the law —even laws we thought were idiotic.

We married and had children. We struggled to raise families. Some of us went to war, like our fathers and grandfathers before us. We thought that when we grew old, there would be more for us – more than alienation.

Most of us don’t recognize Biden’s America. Patriotism has become passe. Our military is led by men who are social workers and politically correct hacks. They can’t fight, but they’re great at getting soldiers to use preferred pronouns and combating imaginary racism in the ranks.

Giant corporations have replaced individual enterprise, which – in many cases – has been taxed and regulated out of existence. Government bureaucrats and corporate executives are like the pigs and men at the end of Orwell’s “Animal Farm.”

We look in vain for a Ronald Reagan, a Lincoln or Teddy Roosevelt. Instead, we find corrupt clowns like wizened Nancy Pelosi, Commissar Ocasio-Cortez (the Latina pinup girl selling socialist snake oil) and our president – a cranky septuagenarian slipping noisily into senility.

If we’re white, we’re told that we are responsible for every problem that plagues people of color. That’s right, we’re to blame for the roughly 70% of black children born out of wedlock (we forced their parents to behave irresponsibly), just as cops are to blame for the deaths of thugs who threaten their lives.

Savages who burn down cities are hailed as heroes and celebrated as warriors for social justice.

Mayors take down statues of Washington and Columbus and commission murals of George Floyd.

If you’re white, you’re also responsible for slavery, segregation, the Wounded Knee massacre and Japanese Americans interned during World War II. Racism is in our blood, they tell us. Remember, throughout the course of human history, racism has never existed anywhere but here.

By “despoiling the earth,” we’re also responsible for climate change. If we end up paying $7-a-gallon for gas – well, it’s our own damned fault.

Forget racial minorities. Now, we’re told that there are “sexual minorities” — that people who used to be considered odd are in fact oppressed. And that a man who thinks he’s a woman in fact is a woman – and is entitled to use the ladies’ room with our granddaughters. And if we refuse to accept this bizarre fantasy, we are hateful! And racist!

What passes for entertainment is sickening – all blood and gore, sadistic killers, aliens who pop out of people’s stomachs and monsters in various guises. We search in vain for contemporary movies with characters we can admire or at least care about. So, we retreat to cinema of the 40s and 50s on TCM.

On top of living in a country that’s unrecognizable, we can’t even afford to live here anymore. You need a second mortgage to buy a steak. A hamburger and fries at McDonald’s are a gourmet feast.

Filling up the tank is agonizing. Inflation is at a 40-year high and accelerating, and politicians tell us it’s because government isn’t spending enough.

Our parents could retire at 65, in the mortgage-free home they bought in their 30s. We’re still working at 75. Retirement is a distant dream. We’re working to provide benefits for illegal aliens, addicts and loons who camp out and defecate on the streets and steal from the corner store at will.

Many of us are the grandchildren of immigrants, a fact of which we are proud. Our people helped to build this country. But we witness with unalloyed horror the tide flowing across our southern border unimpeded. The middle class view them as criminals, gang members and mooches. The Democratic party sees them as voters. We can’t defend our own borders, but are expected to defend those of distant lands.

This used to be an English-speaking country. Now it’s ballots in 20 languages, court interpreters and press one for Spanish.

Our feeble president (who’s been sucking on the federal teat for half-a-century) is unable to perform his Constitutional duties, but has successfully waged war on domestic energy production. We went from energy independence to beggars with a gas can in a matter of months. The corpse that walks says climate change is the biggest threat to our national security – along with transphobia.

Washington sputters about Putin’s war on Ukraine, but imports 670,000 barrels of Russian oil a month. While he lets pipelines rust and our oil, coal and natural gas remain in the ground, Biden pleads with the Saudis to pump more – and is thinking about imports from the Marxists of Venezuela and the jihadists of Iran, both Russian allies. Apparently, oil from anywhere outside the U.S. doesn’t pollute.

Officeholders for life treat us like mentally-challenged children. They snicker at those who pay their exorbitant salaries.

So, we limp along into old age, too proud to go on the dole and too stubborn to just give up.

Besides, surrender now would be a betrayal of the America that once was.

Hard times create strong people. Strong people create easy times. Easy times create weak people.

Weak people create hard times. – (Source)

How Washington Can End the Inflation Crisis It Created

by Kevin Roberts and Rand Paul

The truth about inflation: Contrary to Democrats’ claim that COVID-19 and Vladimir Putin are to blame for decades-high inflation, the culprit is actually the massive amounts of federal spending and intrusive regulations the left enacted.

Just can’t let it go: The problem is that the left refuses to give up the budgetary and regulatory power that it took during the pandemic.

The solution: “As with school closures, masks and vaccine mandates last year, the only way policymakers will give up their inflationary, COVID-era overlordship of the economy in 2022 is if the American people take it from them,” write Heritage President Kevin Roberts and Sen. Rand Paul, R-Ky, in a joint op-ed. Read full commentary here.

“By the end of two years of President Biden’s presidency, families will be losing more than $6,000 in buying power because of inflation.” —House GOP Leader Kevin McCarthy ☼

The Army’s Climate Obsession Is A Disgrace

by Dr. Jay Lehr and Robert Lyman

The United States Army has just published its climate strategy. Secretary of the Army Christine Wormuth, holder of a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from Williams College and a former civilian employee of the Department of Defense, proudly stated: “The army must adapt across our entire enterprise and purposefully pursue greenhouse gas mitigation strategies to reduce climate risks.” (Read more) ☼

The Three Cs Preventing Total State Control

By J.B. Shurk

If you were a time-traveling supervillain intent on world domination, how might you change the past in order to seize total control of the present? I’d get rid of the personal automobile, unsupervised cash transactions, and uncontrolled mass communication. If you take away freedom of movement, freedom of commerce, and freedom of speech, then you can keep people isolated, dependent on government welfare, and ignorant of any ideas that might threaten the power of the State. Cars, cash, and communication are tools for promoting and protecting freedom, so if your goal is total State control over the individual, the three big Cs must go. Is it a coincidence, then, that Western governments today seem committed to following that very playbook? Can you remember a time when disagreement was accepted as a vital part of a healthy and free society? Can you remember a time when speech was not policed and people were not fired for their personal beliefs? Can you remember a time when self-sufficiency was a virtue and government dependence was something to avoid? Can you remember a time when freedom was not something “handed out” for good behavior? If you can, then you know what’s already been lost. And unless Americans demand control over their own futures once again, you know how much more there is still left to lose. (Read full article) ☼

Look How Washington is Spending Your Money

By Rajan Laad

While the media is focused the conflict in Ukraine, Congress has been occupied debating another massive $1.5 trillion omnibus spending bill (2700 pages). Read article to find out where your money is going. Not just pork. Wokester pork. And swampers are rejoicing.

See also: 6 Examples of Woke Pork Projects in Omnibus Spending Bill by Matthew Dickerson

When congressional leaders rolled out the 2,700-page, $1.5 trillion omnibus spending bill this week, they made sure to lard it up with plenty of pork. A list of all the earmarks attached to the bill spans 367 pages by itself. ☼

Who is to blame for the mess the world is in?

Joseph D’Aleo, CCM

Government agencies, energy companies, auto and major corporations, big tech, universities, national labs, once honest professional societies and the ideologically corrupted media in recent years have been single minded in their support of decarbonization programs and policies (including taxes, mandated reduction of our use of fossil fuels, pushing not ready for prime time alternatives). This has proved to be a disaster. Moreover, the war in the Ukraine and what may follow would have not happened had we stayed the course. Those most affected by these policies are low and middle income families and individuals.

Many of the so-called experts never were interested and involved in ever studying the atmosphere and the science. Many were drawn into the field by the if money being made to advance the big lie. As is often the case in economics and science, real scientists publish or present conflicting data, they are accused of being in the denial corner with funding from fossil fuel. In academia, many are cancelled or attacked by their partners in the leftist think tanks and media. Think of the last 2 years of COVID as the so-called science changed from week to week to fit political purposes (increasing the power of political leaders). The same has been happening with carbon dioxide and fossil fuels and climate. (Read more) ☼

“The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary.” H. L. Mencken

“The urge to save humanity is almost always a false front for the urge to rule.” H. L. Mencken

“All warfare is based on deception. There is no place where espionage is not used. Offer the enemy bait to lure him.” —Sun Tzu (c.500-320 B.C.)

“In war, truth is the first casualty.” —Aeschylus (525-456 BC)

“The Party told you to reject the evidence of your eyes and ears. It was their final, most essential command.” —George Orwell, 1984


“Why did the West fail to deter Russia from invading Ukraine? Because we were lost in soft, renewable energy delusions while Putin was grounded in the hard physical reality of nuclear, oil, & natural gas. Ukrainians are paying for our wishful thinking.” —Michael Shellenberger

“Climate-change moralists love humanity so much in the abstract that they must shut down its life-giving gas, coal, and oil in the concrete. And they value humans so little that they don’t worry in the here and now that ensuing fuel shortages and exorbitant costs cause wars, spike inflation, and threaten people’s ability to travel or keep warm. … Elite ideology divorced from reality impoverishes people and can get them killed.” —Victor Davis Hanson

“You know your brain is broken when you think foreign oil is better for the environment than American oil.” —Congressman Dan Crenshaw

“Reminder: The Biden administration WANTED this. Their policies were specifically intended to drive up gas prices to force people into electric cars. This is not an accident, and it’s not just a result of the crisis in Ukraine.” —Matt Whitlock

What Electric Vehicles Require – not so green

from New England National Review

Batteries, they do not make electricity – they store electricity produced elsewhere, primarily by coal, uranium, natural gas-powered plants, or diesel-fueled generators. So, to say an EV is a zero-emission vehicle is not at all valid.

Also, since 22% of the electricity generated in the U.S. is from coal-fired plants, it follows that 22% of the EVs on the road are coal-powered, do you see?

Einstein’s formula, E=MC2, tells us it takes the same amount of energy to move a five-thousand-pound gasoline-driven automobile a mile as it does an electric one. The only question again is what produces the power? To reiterate, it does not come from the battery; the battery is only the storage device, like a gas tank in a car.

There are two orders of batteries, rechargeable, and single-use. The most common single-use batteries are A, AA, AAA, C, D. 9V, and lantern types. Those dry-cell species use zinc, manganese, lithium, silver oxide, or zinc and carbon to store electricity chemically. Please note they all contain toxic, heavy metals.

Rechargeable batteries only differ in their internal materials, usually lithium-ion, nickel-metal oxide, and nickel-cadmium. The United States uses three billion of these two battery types a year, and most are not recycled; they end up in landfills. California is the only state which requires all batteries be recycled. If you throw your small, used batteries in the trash, here is what happens to them.

All batteries are self-discharging. That means even when not in use, they leak tiny amounts of energy. You have likely ruined a flashlight or two from an old, ruptured battery. When a battery runs down and can no longer power a toy or light, you think of it as dead; well, it is not. It continues to leak small amounts of electricity. As the chemicals inside it run out, pressure builds inside the battery’s metal casing, and eventually, it cracks. The metals left inside then ooze out. The ooze in your ruined flashlight is toxic, and so is the ooze that will inevitably leak from every battery in a landfill. All batteries eventually rupture; it just takes rechargeable batteries longer to end up in the landfill.

In addition to dry cell batteries, there are also wet cell ones used in automobiles, boats, and motorcycles. The good thing about those is, ninety percent of them are recycled. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to recycle single-use ones properly.

But that is not half of it. For those of you excited about electric cars and a green revolution, I want you to take a closer look at batteries and also windmills and solar panels. These three technologies share what we call environmentally destructive production costs.

A typical EV battery weighs one thousand pounds, about the size of a travel trunk. It contains twenty-five pounds of lithium, sixty pounds of nickel, 44 pounds of manganese, 30 pounds cobalt, 200 pounds of copper, and 400 pounds of aluminum, steel, and plastic. Inside are over 6,000 individual lithium-ion cells.

It should concern you that all those toxic components come from mining. For instance, to manufacture each EV auto battery, you must process 25,000 pounds of brine for the lithium, 30,000 pounds of ore for the cobalt, 5,000 pounds of ore for the nickel, and 25,000 pounds of ore for copper. All told, you dig up 500,000 pounds of the earth’s crust for just – one – battery.”

Sixty-eight percent of the world’s cobalt, a significant part of a battery, comes from the Congo. Their mines have no pollution controls, and they employ children who die from handling this toxic material. Should we factor in these diseased kids as part of the cost of driving an electric car?”

I’d like to leave you with these thoughts. California is building the largest battery in the world near San Francisco, and they intend to power it from solar panels and windmills. They claim this is the ultimate in being ‘green,’ but it is not. This construction project is creating an environmental disaster. Let me tell you why.

The main problem with solar arrays is the chemicals needed to process silicate into the silicon used in the panels. To make pure enough silicon requires processing it with hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrogen fluoride, trichloroethane, and acetone. In addition, they also need gallium, arsenide, copper-indium-gallium- diselenide, and cadmium-telluride, which also are highly toxic. Silicon dust is a hazard to the workers, and the panels cannot be recycled.

Windmills are the ultimate in embedded costs and environmental destruction. Each weighs 1688 tons (the equivalent of 23 houses) and contains 1300 tons of concrete, 295 tons of steel, 48 tons of iron, 24 tons of fiberglass, and the hard to extract rare earths neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium. Each blade weighs 81,000 pounds and will last 15 to 20 years, at which time it must be replaced. We cannot recycle used blades.

There may be a place for these technologies, but you must look beyond the myth of zero emissions.

“Going Green” may sound like the Utopian ideal but when you look at the hidden and embedded costs realistically with an open mind, you can see that Going Green is more destructive to the Earth’s environment than meets the eye, for sure. (Source)☼

No Amount Of Incremental Wind And Solar Power Can Ever Provide Energy Independence

by Francis Menton

Electricity gets consumed the instant it is generated. Electricity is consumed all the time, and therefore must be generated all the time. Indeed, some of the peak times for electricity consumption occur on winter evenings, when the sun has set, temperatures are very cold, the wind is often completely calm, and the need for energy for light, heat, cooking and more are high. During such times, a combined wind and solar generation system produces zero power. It doesn’t matter if you build a thousand wind turbines and solar panels, or a million, or a billion or a trillion. The output will still be zero.

And calm winter nights are just the most intense piece of the problem. A fully wind/solar generation system, with seemingly plenty of “capacity” to meet peak electricity demand, will also regularly and dramatically underproduce at random critical times throughout a year: for example, on heavily overcast and cold winter days; or on calm and hot summer evenings, when the sun has just set and air conditioning demand is high. (Read more) ☼

More Confirmation Of The Infeasibility Of A Fully Wind/Solar/Storage Electricity System

by Francis Menton

In this post Menton discusses a new study which further demonstrates of the complete infeasibility — indeed the complete absurdity — of attempting in the short term to replace all fossil fuel electricity generation in a modern economy with only wind, solar and storage. Understanding the amount of storage required, its physical characteristics, and its cost, is completely essential to answering the question of whether a fully wind/solar/storage system is feasible. (Read more) ☼

No Energy Realism In Bidenland

by Francis Menton

The situation in Ukraine should be a wake-up call to every sentient person to ditch the fantasies about wind and solar energy ASAP, and make sure that we have real energy that works. The wind/solar delusion, combined with active suppression of fossil fuels and even of nuclear, are basically financing Vladimir Putin’s war via increased oil and gas exports and higher prices. Meanwhile, the brave Ukrainian armed forces are certainly not running on the wind and sun; nor are the Russians who are attacking them. In 2021, after finally achieving energy independence under President Trump, the U.S. immediately gave that up as the Biden Administration brought fresh rounds of fossil fuel suppression. There are plenty of people in positions of power and/or influence in and over our government who are so taken with the religious fervor of “green” energy and “net zero” emissions that no amount of critical real world events can penetrate their mental armor. (Read more) ☼


The Sun Versus CO2 as the Cause of Climate Change Projected to 2050

by H. Douglas Lightfoot, and Gerald Ratzer, Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences


The current controversy over the cause of increasing global temperatures since the middle of the 20th century comes from the IPCC First Assessment Report issued in 1990. The report states rising carbon dioxide (CO2) warms the air, thereby holding more of the significant warming gas, water vapor. This additional water vapor feeds back to amplify the warming by CO2. The IPCC has continually promoted this concept in its reports since 1990. Up-to-date science proves the IPCC concept is faulty. Scientists discovered that when the Sun’s energy output changes, it impacts the Earth’s temperature, and it does this cyclically. Current, reliable evidence shows the Earth has just come through a warm period. It is now in the early stages of cooling that might be similar to the Dalton Minimum and last for three or four decades. Average temperatures can drop by up to 1.5° C and increase the rate of crop failures that have already started. It won’t be easy to maintain the benefits of the recent warm phase of the Sun during the upcoming solar minimum. (Read full paper – 10 pages) ☼

A ‘Plan B’ for addressing climate change and the energy transition

by Dr. Judith Curry

Climate change is increasingly being referred to as a crisis, emergency, existential threat and most recently as ‘code red.’ Climate change has become a grand narrative in which manmade global warming is regarded as the dominant cause of societal problems. So, exactly what is wrong with this grand narrative of climate change? In a nutshell, we’ve vastly oversimplified both the problem of climate change and its solutions. The complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity of the existing knowledge about climate change is being kept away from the policy and public debates. The dangers of manmade climate change have been confounded with natural weather and climate variability. The solutions that have been proposed for rapidly eliminating fossil fuels are technologically and politically infeasible on a global scale. (Read more) ☼

Washington Examiner, You’re Right, Climate Change Isn’t an ‘Existential Threat’

by H. Sterling Burnett

In a Washington Examiner article, titled “Climate change is not an ‘existential threat,’” the author, David Simon writes:

The Biden administration’s climate change policies have sharply increased oil prices, damaging the domestic economy and increasing the cost of nearly everything consumers buy. By increasing revenues for Russian President Vladimir Putin’s regime, they also made Russia stronger and more dangerous at a critical time, thus damaging national security. …

But worst of all, the Biden administration’s basis for these policies, the claim that global warming presents an “existential threat,” is fraudulent. It is not based on any scientific consensus, and in fact, it ignores evidence of environmental benefits of global warming that offset its harm.

Simon’s conclusion:

Biden administration climate change policies are sensationalizing the threats while ignoring all the benefits. They rely on speculative “models” that supposedly project global temperatures and predict disasters. But these models are highly unreliable … unable even to reproduce the temperature changes of the 20th century.

The Biden administration’s campaign against U.S. oil production and pipelines is not just harmful — it is an environmental fraud. (Read more) ☼


Shoot Owls to Save Owls? That’s The ESA in Action (Reuters)

Big Green and Bill Clinton used northern spotted owl “protections” as a pretext for throwing lumber producers off U.S. forests. But loggers weren’t the bird’s biggest problem, as it turns out. Now the feds are shooting barred owls in order to “save” spotted owls, all with the blessing of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, in another Endangered Species Act absurdity. (Read more) ☼

Wanted: Grizzly Bear Conflict Manager – Grappling With Bears Not Required (The Guardian) Some in the media have had a lot of fun with this story, as we pointed out in last week’s edition of The Weekender. But it’s no laughing matter for mountain state residents who must deal with the costly, dangerous, sometimes deadly consequences of this federal “rewilding” experiment run amok. Grizzly-human conflicts could be minimalized if federal officials would follow the law, and the science, by delisting a species that has met all original recovery benchmarks and needs to “graduate” from the endangered species list. Delisting would let states take the lead in managing the animals, just as they manage other big game species. The grizzly remains listed because a listed bear becomes a useful pawn in bigger games, aimed at ruining ranchers and ending the multiple-use management of public lands. (Read more) ☼


Daily coffee may boost heart health, lower mortality

By HealthDay News

In this largest ever analysis of nearly 383,000 men and women who were part of the UK Biobank, researchers discovered that, over 10 years, drinking two to three cups of coffee a day lowered the risk for heart disease, stroke, dangerous heart arrhythmias, dying from heart disease and dying from any cause by 10% to 15%. (Read more) ☼


The danger to America is not Joe Biden, but a citizenry capable of entrusting a man like him with the Presidency. It will be far easier to limit and undo the follies of a Biden presidency than to restore the necessary common sense and good judgment to a depraved electorate willing to have such a man for their president. The problem is much deeper and far more serious than Mr. Biden, who is a mere symptom of what ails America. Blaming the prince of the fools should not blind anyone to the vast confederacy of fools that made him their prince. The Republic can survive a Biden, who is, after all, merely a fool. It is less likely to survive a multitude of fools, such as those who made him their president.” – from a Prague newspaper

“History teaches that wars begin when governments believe the price of aggression is cheap.” —President Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)

“8% inflation is the cost of having incompetent socialists in the White House.” —Tom Cotton

“The Biden Administration has tried to pin the entire increase in gas prices on Putin’s invasion of Ukraine. They want to blame 14 months of gas price increases on the last two weeks of turmoil. It’s laugh-out-loud revisionist history.” —Senate GOP Leader Mitch McConnell

“The principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale.” —Thomas Jefferson (1816)

‘Politics is the art of making your selfish desires seem like the national interest.’—Thomas Sowell

It doesn’t matter what is true, it only matters what people believe is true.” – Paul Watson, co-founder of Greenpeace

“The only way to get our society to truly change is to frighten people with the possibility of a catastrophe.” – Emeritus professor Daniel Botkin

“Our aim is not to save the world from ecological calamity but to change the global economic system… This is probably the most difficult task we have ever given ourselves, which is to intentionally transform the economic development model, for the first time in human history.” In simpler terms, replace free enterprise, entrepreneurial capitalism with UN-controlled centralized, One World government and economic control. – UN Climate Chief Christiana Figueres

“One has to free oneself from the illusion that international climate policy is environmental policy. “It is not. It is actually about how “we redistribute de facto the world’s wealth.”

– IPCC official Ottmar Edenhofer

“Let the American youth never forget, that they possess a noble inheritance, bought by the toils, and sufferings, and blood of their ancestors; and capacity, if wisely improved, and faithfully guarded, of transmitting to their latest posterity all the substantial blessings of life, the peaceful enjoyment of liberty, property, religion, and independence.” —Joseph Story (1833)

“A feeble executive implies a feeble execution of the government. A feeble execution is but another phrase for a bad execution; and a government ill executed, whatever may be its theory, must be, in practice, a bad government.” —Alexander Hamilton (1788)

“Some people said that having Joe Biden as Vice President meant that President Obama had someone with many years of foreign policy experience. What they ignored was that Biden had decades of experience being wrong on foreign policy issues, time and time again.” —Thomas Sowell

“The ‘climate change’ movement — and, yes, it is a movement — is, at its most fundamental and essential level, environmental paganism. In other words, it is a religion, a kind of pantheistic soteriology by which humanity is saved by worshiping the creation over and above the Creator.” —Darrell B. Harrison

“Much of the chaos we’re seeing in the world today is the result of people who want a society that is fair as opposed to a society that is just. A fair society gives people what they subjectively want, whereas a just society gives people what they objectively deserve.” —Darrell B. Harrison

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Our Mission

1) Support private property rights.

2) Support multiple use management of federal lands for agriculture, livestock grazing, mining, oil and gas production, recreation, timber harvesting and water development activities.

3) Support a balance of environmental responsibility and economic benefit for all Americans by urging that environmental policy be based on good science and sound economic principles.

Newsletters can be viewed online on Jonathan’s Wryheat Blog:


See my essay on climate change:




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The Constitution is the real contract with America.

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People for the West – Tucson, Inc.

PO Box 86868

Tucson, AZ 85754-6868


Jonathan DuHamel, President & Editor

Dr. John Forrester, Vice President

Lonni Lees, Associate Editor

People for the West – Tucson, Inc. is an Arizona tax-exempt, 501(c)(3) corporation. Newsletter subscriptions are free.

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, any copyrighted material herein is distributed without profit or payment to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving this information for non-profit research and educational purposes only.