Agave, a plant of many uses

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAztecs, Anasazi, Hohokam, and the Tohono O’odham, have used the agave for fiber, food, medicine, adult beverages, and building materials for thousands of years. The earliest known use was in the Techuacán Valley of Mexico 10,000 years ago. Agaves have been used by people in southern Arizona for at least 4,000 years both as a wild plant and a cultivated plant.  A Hohokam agave field located in the South Mountain bajada at Awatukee, near Phoenix, has been dated at 700 A.D.

Agaves, sometimes called century plants, are succulents like cacti.  Their normal life span is usually between 10 and 30 years, not a century.  At the end of their time, they shoot up a stalk which is often quick growing, as much as one foot per day.  Agaves make a stalk just once in their lifetime, then die.  Of the at least 40 species, there are two main groups, those with branched inflorescences pollinated principally by bats, and those with unbranched flower spikes, pollinated mainly by insects and hummingbirds.  Agaves reproduce from seeds, by pupping from the roots, and some, such as the octopus agave, produce plantlets on the flower stalk instead of seeds.

Agave2 stalkFiber

Fiber, often called sisal, is extracted from the spiked leaves.  The cut leaves were allowed to dry or were baked, then pounded to loosen the pulp which was combed out with a sharp stick and washed away with water. By the way, the pulp in some species is acidic enough to cause dermatitis but baking reduces the acidity.  The cleaned fibers were used to make clothing, rope, baskets, and brushes.  The end spines could be used for needles, and with careful extraction, came with thread attached.  I have used this for an emergency field sewing kit.

Agaves have been exported around the world.  I have seen plantations in South Africa where agaves are grown for sisal fiber.


After the leaves were cut off, the heart of the plant (imaging a giant artichoke) was roasted yielding a sweet nutritious food that is slightly slimy and  tastes like molasses.  This food could be wrapped in the skin of the leaves and stored. Cooking is essential because otherwise the heart of the agave is very poisonous.  Flower stalks were also eaten but could not be stored.

The juice of the agave heart was boiled down into a sweet syrup. Apparently the nectar is also used.  I have a bottle of “organic blue agave sweetener” from Trader Joe’s which claims to be made from the nectar.


The juice could be fermented (by spitting into it) into pulque, a beer-like drink.  It wasn’t until the Europeans arrived with their knowledge of distillation that the agave juice was made into tequila and other distilled spirits.  It is my understanding that tequila is a proprietary name and only spirits distilled from the blue agave can be called tequila.  Other agave spirits are called mescal or bocanora. Some sources say that the Mescalero Apaches of southern Arizona were named after their extensive use of the “mescal” agave.


The juice or syrup also was used medicinally.  The agave contains polysaccharides which are bactericidal, and saponins and sapogenins that have antibiotic, fungicidal, and antiviral properties.  Saponin in Agave schottii is being investigated for cancer treatment.

Building materials

The stalks can be used for a variety of building purposes and they make good, light, strong walking sticks.

More on Mesquite

A reader of my recent article Mesquite Trees Provide Food and a Pharmacy, offered some speculative information about the Hohokam uses of Mesquite trees.

The Hohokam were native people who occupied Arizona from near Flagstaff, south to the Mexican border, during the period approximately 200 B.C. to 1450 A.D. They built an extensive network of canals near what is now Phoenix.

Richard D. Fisher, who apparently is a writer on archaeological subjects, speculates that the Hohokam built their canal network specifically to grow mesquite trees.

“The Hohokam canal system was probably built primarily for the cultivation of a mesquite bosque. It has been long questioned why the Hohokam built such an extensive system on one of the saltiest rivers in North America. Bean and especially corn cultivation is moderately to severely impacted by saline water and salinity. Mesquite is not impacted by levels of salinity found in the Salt River basin. My observation is that the Hohokam’s primary reason was to grow mesquite in the “delta” shaped canal system and mesquite conditioned the soil for corn and beans with nitrogen and shade temperature reduction, and moderated freeze sensitivity in the winter.”

“The Hohokam would have always faced the challenge of soil salinity, yet they farmed the same region for more than a thousand years, indicating that they understood how to deal with soil salinity — through the flushing of soils, leaving certain tracts fallow, alternating crop types planted, and other soil management techniques. Mesquite comprises approximately 50% of the archaeological record as compared to corn and beans.” He also proposes that the so-called “ballcourts” found among Hohokam ruins were in fact fertilizer dehydration basins.

Mr. Fisher provided reference to two webpages to further his thesis: see here and here.