Plant Evapotranspiration Reduction Causes Global Warming, not CO2 GHG

Wryheat note: The following is an original research paper written by David Motes, a chemical engineer with 43 years professional experience. Below I provide the paper abstract with a link to the full paper as a PDF file. The full paper discusses nine problems with the Greenhouse hypothesis and then presents Motes’ alternative hypothesis. Mr. Motes may be contacted at

Plant Evapotranspiration Reduction Causes Global Warming, not CO2 GHG
by David Motes

Anthropogenic (manmade) Global Warming (AGW) has many causes. CO2 drives recent global warming by Plant Evapotranspiration Reduction (PER), not CO2 Green House Gas (GHG) theory. For example, the irrefutable correlation between global temperature and CO2 concentration for the last 800+ thousand years can only be explained by plant evapotranspiration increases / decreases and not by the prevailing CO2 GHG effects. The prevailing GHG theory cannot explain why CO2 increased or decreased or the carbon source prior to fossil fuel emissions, but PER does. Quantitative evidence for PER driving global warming over CO2 GHG follows:

  1. Using a NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency) energy balance, the scientific consensus 0.70%/year plant water use efficiency increase (evapotranspiration reduction) caused by higher CO2 generates a calculated temperature rise 12 times the actual measured temperature rise.
  2. Similarly, the measured 0.23%/year deforestation and land use change (causing same plant evapotranspiration 0.23%/year reduction) generates a calculated temperature rise 3 times the actual measured temperature rise. From scientific consensus, global development, deforestation, commercial farming, and commercial ranching have reduced plants (consequently evapotranspiration) since the 1960 industrial global expansion. Explaining the 12 and 3 factors:
    A. The actual temperature increase was less due to increasing infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere to space from that same temperature rise.
    B. Terrestrial biomass increases in deserts and arid lands partially offset the measured evapotranspiration reductions.
  3. Only 8% photosynthesis reduction is equivalent to all 2020 fossil fuel CO2 emissions.
  4. Water vapor is 192 times stronger GHG than CO2 when you factor in both infrared absorbances and atmospheric concentrations. Consequently, CO2 GHG contributes only ~0.3% to AGW, balance driven by PER.
  5. The PER impact on global warming is demonstrated in real life at many locations such as city centers being 1-3 °C warmer than the surrounding suburbs or countryside. Secondly, the air is 3-4oC cooler above a green grass lawn vs a black asphalt parking lot. PER provides an explanation for the undeniable Global Warming that fits all the scientific data (climate history, carbon sources, carbon mass balances, energy balances, GHG parameters, humidity data, etc.) as quantified and explained in this engineering and scientific study. “Greening” the earth (increasing plant life) is less expensive and substantially more effective than just reducing annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions (contributes only 1% of existing atmospheric CO2).

Quantified problems with the proposed CO2 annual emission reduction
plans follow:

  1. Will certainly fail by focusing on the 1%/year contribution and foolishly ignoring the 99% existing atmospheric CO2.
  2. Focuses solely on reducing the 8% CO2 emissions driver, while ignoring the 92% plant life CO2 driver. Prior to attempting to resolve the current global warming problem, we should identify, quantify, and confirm the root cause(s) and magnitudes. Then, solutions become clearer and more cost effective.

Read the full paper:

CO2 & Global Temperature 19apr2021

A London Rocket in my yard

London rocket1About two weeks ago, I noticed a weed growing in an unused flower pot on my deck. It was just a few inches high but it had pretty yellow flowers, so I watered it. That’s all it needed; it grew rapidly after watering. In the photo, the plant is about two feet high.

I was able to identify the plant as a “London Rocket” according to the book “Plants of Arizona.”

London Rocket (Sisymbrium irio), also called “tumble mustard,” is not native to Arizona but is a widespread invader. I just had not noticed it before. It turns out to be a very interesting plant.

The United States Geological Survey says this plant is native to Eurasia, but it occurs in Great Britain and has become naturalized in Australia, Hawaii, southern Africa, and much of western North America. The University of California says: “London rocket is a highly competitive winter annual broadleaf plant.” Its habitat includes “Roadsides, fields, orchards, vineyards, gardens, and other disturbed sites.”

According to Wikipedia: “The common name ‘London rocket’ comes from its abundance after the Great Fire of London in 1666. It was also noticed on bomb sites after the Blitz.”


London rocket 2

Firefly Forest, a site devoted to Southeastern Arizona wild flowers, describes the plant as follows:

“The flowers are 1/4 inch (6 mm) wide and have 4 tiny, oblong petals. The older flower clusters are surrounded by a ring of long, slender seedpods that flare outward and resemble exploding fireworks. The leaves are green, mainly basal, larger near the base of the plant, triangular in shape, and pinnately lobed.”

“The flowers, young leaves, and seeds are all edible, but they are hot and pungent and so should be used sparingly.” I tasted the raw leaves and they are indeed hot and pungent.

Another source, Practical plants says immature leaves – raw or cooked are used as greens. But, it is a famine food, eaten when better foods are in short supply. Seeds, raw or cooked can be ground into meal. Seeds can also be dried, ground into a powder then mixed with water and used as a gruel. The seed can be mixed with water to make a drink.

London Rocket also has many medicinal uses.

Wikipedia says: “London rocket is used in the Middle East to treat coughs and chest congestion, to relieve rheumatism, to detoxify the liver and spleen, and to reduce swelling and clean wounds. The Bedouin use the leaf of London Rocket as a tobacco substitute.”

Practical Plants says: “The seeds are expectorant, restorative and a stimulant. They are used in the treatment of asthma. Externally, they are used as a stimulating poultice. The seeds have been placed under the lids of sore eyes in order to cause weeping and thereby wash foreign matter out of the eye. An infusion of the leaves is used in treating infections of the throat and chest.”

See more photos here.

I also found a webpage from Gardening Insights titled Edible weeds in Tucson: “Don’t spray it, sauté it.”

Perhaps the moral of this story is to take time to look around. You never can tell what might turn up.

Read about other plants of the Sonoran Desert:

A Desert Christmas cactus

Agave, a plant of many uses

Arizona Passion Flower

Arizona Wild Cotton

Brittlebush and chewing gum

Can You Get Potable Water From a Cactus?

Chiltepin peppers, spice and medicine

Creeping Devil Cactus

Creosote Bush, a Desert Survivor

Data presentation in Santa Catalina Mountains plant study misleading

Desert Tobacco, a pretty but poisonous desert plant Desert Ironwood with video Edible Desert Plants – Barrel Cactus Fruit

Jojoba oil, good on the outside, bad on the inside

Joshua Trees of the Mohave Desert

Limberbush or blood of the dragon

Mesquite Trees Provide Food and a Pharmacy

More on Mesquite

Oak trees of the Sonoran Desert Region

Ocotillos and the Boojum

Palo Verde Trees Will Turn the Desert Golden

Saguaro Cactus Icon of the Sonoran Desert

Should the Acuna cactus receive Federal protection?

Spectacular flowers of the Red Torch Cactus

The Old Man and the Totem Pole

Tucson invaded by popcorn flowers

Yuccas provide food, fiber, and soap